Famous Ulema and their fatwa on Khatm-e-Nabuwwat

Mohy-us-Sunnah Baghawi ( died 510 A.H.) writes in his commentary Ma`lam-al-Tanzil: “God brought the line of Prophets to an end with him. Hence he is the final Prophet…….Ibn `Abbas affirms that God(in this verse) has given His verdict that no Prophet will come after the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh).” (Vol. 3, p. 158)

Allama Baidawi(died A.H. 685), in his commentary, Anwar-ul-Tanzil, writes: “In other words he, Muhammed (pbuh), is the last of all Prophets. He is the one in whom the line of Prophets ends or the one whose advent has sealed the office of Prophethood. The appearance of Hadrat ‘Isa (peace be upon him) after Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) is not a contradiction of the finality of Muhammed’s Prophethood, because Hadrat Isa will appear as a follower of the Shariah of Muhammed.” (Vol. 4, p. 164)

‘Allama Hafiz-ud-Din Al-Nasafi (died A.H.710), in his commentary, Madark-ut-Tanzil, writes: “And he Mohammed (pbuh) is the one who has brought the line of prophets to an end…in other words he is the last of all prophets. God shall not appoint another prophet after him. In respect of Hadrat `Isa (peace be upon him) it may be stated that he is among those who were appointed Prophets before the time of Mohammed (pbuh). And when Hadrat `Isa appears again, he will be a follower of the Shar’iah of Mohammed, and one among faithful.” (p. 471)

`Allama `Alau-din Baghdadi (died A.H. 725) in his commentary, Khazin, writes: “Wa Khatam-un-Nabiyyin,’ in other words, God has ended prophethood in him, Mohammed (pbuh). Henceforth there is no prophethood after him, nor is there any partner with him in prophethood…Wa Kan Allahu Bikulle Shaiin `Alima, God is aware that no prophet will come after him.” (pp. 471-472)

Allama Jalal-Ud-Din Suyuti (died A.H. 911) writes in his commentary entitled Jalalain, “God is aware of the fact that no prophet will succeed Mohammed (pbuh) and when Isa (pbuh) will reappear in the world he will act according to the Shariah of Mohammed (pbuh).” (p. 768)

Allama Ibn Nujaim (died A.H. 970) in his renowned work of the canons of Fiqh entitled, ‘Al-Ashbah wan-Nazair’, Kitab- us-Siyyar:Bab: al-Raddah, writes: “A person who does not regard Mohammed (pbuh) as the last Prophet of God is not a Muslim, for the finality of Mohammed’s prophethood is one of those fundamental articles of faith which a Muslim must understand and believe.” (p. 179)

Mulla Ali Qari (died A.H. 1016) in his commentary Fiqh Akbar, writes: “To lay a claim to Prophethood after the ministry of our Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) is a sheer infidelity by the consensus of Ummah.” (p. 202)

In Fatawa-i-Alamgiri which was compiled by the eminent scholars of the Indian sub-continent at the command of Aurangzeb Alamgir, in the 12th century Hijri, it is recorded: “A man who does not regard Muhammed (pbuh) as the final Prophet of God, is not a Muslim, and if such a man claims to be a messenger or prophet of God, he shall be proclaimed an apostate.” (Vol. 2, p. 263)

Allama Shoukani (died 1255 A.H.) in his commentary, Fath-ul-Qadeer, writes: “A majority of people have read the word Khatam with the vowel point under the letter ta but ‘Asim reads the same word with vowel stress on ta. The first reading means that Muhammed (pbuh) ended the line of Prophets (peace of Allah be upon them) i.e., in other words the Holy Prophet came last of all the Prophets. The second reading means that the Holy Prophet was the seal by which the office of Prophethood was finally closed; and that his advent lent grace to the group of Allah’s Prophets.

Allama Alusi (died 1270 A.H.) in his commentary, Ruh-ul-Ma’ani, writes: “The word ‘Prophet’ is common, but the word ‘Messenger’ has a particular significance. Hence when the Holy Prophet (pbuh) is called the ‘Seal of Prophets,’ it necessarily follows that he is also the ‘Seal of Messengers.’ The implication of the Holy Prophet’s position as ‘the Last of all Prophets and Messengers of God’ is that by his(pbuh) elevation to the dignity of Prophethood in this world, the same dignity has henceforth been abolished and no man can attain that dignity now.” (Vol. 22, p. 32)

“Anyone who claims to be the recipient of Divine revelations as a prophet after the advent of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), shall be declared an infidel. There is no difference of opinion among Muslims on this point.” (ibid., vol.22, p.38) “The affirmation in the Book of God of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) as `the Last of the Prophets’ is unequivocal. The Sunnah has clearly explained this and the Ummah has reached a consensus on it. Hence anyone who lays a contradictory claim against this position shall be declared an apostate (ibid., vol.22, p. 39)

These are the expositions of the leading savants, jurists, scholars of Hadith and commentators of every realm of Islam, from the sub-continent of India to Morocco and Spain (Andulus) and from Turkey to Yemen. We have indicated their years of birth and death in each case so that the reader may realise at first glance that this list includes eminent authorities of every century of the Islamic History falling between the first and thirteenth century. We might even have added expositions by the learned doctors of Islam belonging to the fourteenth century; but we omitted the Ulema of the 14th century purposely because someone might state that these scholars had explained the meanings of Khatam-i-Nabuwat as ‘the Seal of all Prophets’ to refute the claim of the ‘new prophets’ of the modern age.

 

It cannot, however, be said that the ulema of the past centuries entertained feelings of animosity against a later day personality claiming to be a prophet. These writings also make it clear beyond doubt that from the first century up to the present-day the entire Muslim world has unanimously taken the expression Khatam-un-Nabiyyin to mean `the Last of all Prophets.’ Muslims of all periods have been unanimous in the belief that the office of prophethood has been sealed after the advent of the holy Prophet(pbuh). There has never been any difference of opinion among muslims that any person who prefers a claim to prophethood and those who believe in such a claim to prophethood are outside the pale of Islam.

 

It is now up to all reasonable persons to judge that in the face of all this massive evidence- the plain dictionary meaning of the phrase ‘Khatam-un-Nabiyyin’ the interpretation of the Quranic verse in its true perspective, the exposition of the Holy Prophet himself and the consensus on the finality of prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh) of the entire body of muslims all over the world from the time of the companions of the Holy prophet to the present day followers of Islam-what scope is left for an alternative interpretation and what justification can they give for opening the door of prophethood for a new claimant. Furthermore, how can those people be recognized as Muslims who have not only expressed their opinion in favour of opening the door to prophethood, but they have, in fact, catapulted a man into the mansion of the Prophets of God and have become the followers of this trespasser?

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Qazi Iyad’s fatwa on Khatm-e-Nabuwwat

Qazi ‘Iyad (died 544 A.H.) writes: ” He who lays a claim to prophethood, affirms that a man can attain the office of prophethood or can acquire the dignity of a prophet through purification of soul, as is alleged by some philosophers and sufis; similarly a person who does not claim to be a prophet, but declares that he is the recipient of Divine revelation, all such persons are apostates and deniers of the prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh), for Mohammed (pbuh) has conveyed the message of God to us that he is the final Prophet and no Prophet will come after him. He had also conveyed to us the Divine message that he has finally sealed the office of Prophethood and that he has been sent as a Prophet and a Messenger to the whole of mankind. It is the consensus of the entire Ummah that these words of the Holy Prophet are clear enough and eloquently speak of the fact that they can admit of no other interpretation or amendment in their meaning. Hence there is no doubt that all these sects are outside the pale of Islam not only from the view-point of the consensus of the Ummah but also on the ground of these words having been transmitted with utmost authenticity.” (Shifa, Vol. 2, pp. 270- 271)

​Allama Zamakhshri’s take on Khatemiyat

Allama Zamakhshri (467 A.H.-538 A.H) writes in his commentary entitled Kashshaaf, “If you ask how Mohammed can be the last of the Prophets when Hadrat `Isa (Jesus Christ) will appear towards the end of the world? I shall reply that the finality of Prophethood of Mohammed (pbuh) means that no one will be endowed with prophethood after him. Hadrat ‘Isa is among those upon whom prophethood was endowed before Mohammed (pbuh). Moreover, Hadrat ‘Isa will appear as a follower of Mohammed and he will offer prayers with his face towards the Qiblah of Islam, as a member of the community of the Muslims.” (Vol. 2, p. 215)

Fakhruddin Razi on Khatm-e-Nabuwwat

Imam Razi (543 A.H.-606 A.H.), in his work Tafsir Kabir while explaining the meaning of the verse Khatam-un-Nabiyyin states: “In this context the term Khatam-un Nabiyyin has been used in the sense that a Prophet whose ministry is not final may leave some injunctions or commandments incomplete or unexplained thus providing scope for a succeeding prophet to complete the task. But the Prophet who will have no successor is more considerate and provides clear guidlines for his followers, for he is like a father who knows that after him there will be no guardian or patron to look after his son.”(Vol. 6, p. 581)

Imam Ghazali and Khatm-e-Nabuwwat

Imam Ghazali (450 A.H-505 A.H.) says `If the right of denying the authority of consensus be admitted, it will give rise to many absurdities. For example, if someone says that it is possible for a person to attain the office of Prophethood after our Apostle Mohammed (pbuh), we shall not hestitate to pronounce him as an infidel, but in the course of a controversy the man who wishes to prove that any reluctance in pronoucing such a person as an apostate is a sin shall have to seek the aid of consensus in support of his arguments, because reason is no arbiter against the possibilty of the existance of a `new prophet.’ As regards the followers of the `new prophets’ they will not be utterly incapable of making various interpretations of La Nabiya Ba`di, “There will be no Prophet after me” and Khatam-ul-Nabiyyin, `Last of the Prophets.’ A follower of the `new prophets’ might say that Khatam-ul-Naibiyyin, `Last of the Prophets’ bears the meaning “last of the prominent Messengers.” If you argue that “prophets” is a common word, he would very easily give this term a particular significance with regard to his own `prophethood.’ In respect of `No Prophet will come after him’, such a man would contend that this expression does not say that `No Messengers will follow him.’ There is a difference betwen a Prophet and a Messenger. The status of a Prophet is higher than that of the Messenger. The fact is that such absurdities can be indulged in ad infinitum. It is not difficult, in our view, to make different interpretations of a word. Besides, there is no ample scope for people to commit blunders ever and beyond these points in the exposition of these clear words. We cannot even say that those who make such interpretations are guilty of the denial of clear injunctions. But to refute those who have but their faith in the false expositions we shall say that the entire Ummah by a consensus of opinion recognizes that the words `No Prophet shall come after him’ and the context of the traditions suggests that the Holy Prophet meant that `No Prophet, nor Messenger shall follow him.’ Furthermore, the Ummah is agreed on the point that above words of the Holy Prophet leave no scope for a different interpretation than given to it by the consensus of the Ummah and he who would not join the consensus is no more than a dissident. (Al-Iqtisad Fil Aiteqad, p.114, Egypt)

Abu Hanifa’s verdict on Khatm-e-Nabuwwat  

A glance through the history of Islam from the first century up to the modern times reveals to us the fact that the ulema of all periods in every Islamic country of the world are unanimous in their conviction that no new prophet can be raised after Mohammed (pbuh). They all agree in the belief that anyone who lays a claim to Prophethood after Mohammed (pbuh) and anyone who puts faith in such a claim is an apostate and an outcast from the community of Islam. A man in the time of Imam Abu Hanifa (80 A.H.-150 A.H.) laid claim to Prophethood and said “Let me show you the proofs of my prophethood.” The great Imam thereupon warned the people: “Anyone who asks of this man the credentials of prophethood, shall become an apostate, for the Prophet of God (pbuh) has explicitly declared: “No prophet will come after me.” (Manaqib al-Imam-i-Azam Abi Hanifa, Ibn Ahmad al-Makki, Vol. I, p.161, published in Hyderabad, India, 1321 A.H.)

Islam is the final religion

The following verse clearly explains the superiority of Islam over all religions past and present. Allah declares,

وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ

“If anyone desires a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted of him; and in the Hereafter, he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).”

(The Holy Quran, Chapter of Ale’ Imran, verse 85)

This verse decrees the establishment of Islam as the final religion of Allah. This verse invalidates all new religions that appeared after Islam like, Sikhism, Qadianism and Bahaism. Thus the doors of prophethood were closed on all future claimants, thereby establishing the finality of Islam as well as that of the Holy Prophet (p.b.u.h).

Anybody who claims to be Prophet is a liar

Traditions have been narrated by numerous companions of the Holy Prophet and it proves that the Holy Prophet of Islam on different occasions, in different ways and in different words has made it crystal clear that he was the last of the prophets, and there was no Nabi coming after him, that the chain of Nubuwwah (Prophethood) has been completed, that anybody who claimed to be a Rasul or Nabi after him would be Dajjal and Kazzab (liar).

Can there be any other interpretation or meaning of the words of Qur’an‘Khatam un-Nabiyyin’ than this?

Also there is the Declaration of Sahaba just after the death of Holy Prophet that from then on there was no Nabi to come.

The famous collection of the lectures, etc. of Imam Ali (a.s.) known as ‘Nahj-ul-Balagha’ (which has been published in Egypt with foot notes and explanations of Sheikh Muhammad Abduh) reveals on page 269:

Imam Ali (a.s.) said when he was washing the body of Holy Prophet (S): “My father. and mother be your ransom, such a thing has been discontinued with your death which was never discontinued with the death of any other person, (and that thing is) Prophethood, announcement (of Ghaib) and the news of heaven.”

Hadith-ul-Manzila

‘Hadith-ul-Manzilais the saying of the Holy Prophet (S), which he said at the time of his journey to Tabuk. This tradition is correct without any doubt from any quarter, and innumerable traditionalist and historians have recorded it. Some of them are:

• Saheeh Bukhari, Vol 3. p.58

• Saheeh Muslim, Vol 2, p.323

• Sunan Ibn Majah, Vol 1, p.28

• Mustadrak, Vol 3, p.109

• Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Vol 1, p.173-182

At the time of that journey, the Holy Prophet (S) has left Imam Ali (a.s.), as his successor in Madina. Imam Ali (a.s.) said “You are leaving me behind among women and children.” The Holy Prophet (S) replied: “Are you not pleased that you have the same position with me as Aaroon had with Moses, except that there is no prophet after me.”

This also is a great proof from the tradition of the Holy Prophet (S) that there would be no prophet after him.