How Bahai’s misinterpret verse 2 of Ahzab

وَإِذْ أَخَذْنَا مِنَ النَّبِيِّينَ مِيثَاقَهُمْ وَمِنكَ وَمِن نُّوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى ابْنِ مَرْيَمَ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَاقًا غَلِيظًا

Verse 2: Chapter of Ahzab, verse 7
And remember We took from the prophets their covenant: As (We did) from thee: from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary: We took from them a solemn covenant

What the Bahais say:
This verse refers to Allah taking the covenant from the five prophets – Mohammed, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus the son of Mary (peace be upon them) regarding Bahaullah’s prophethood. Notice how similar the claim of the Bahais with regards to this particular verse is to the previous verse i.e. Surah Ale Imran: 81. Not surprisingly, they are equally mistaken with regards to this verse.

What is the basis of this interpretation:
This is another instance of the Bahais misinterpreting a verse to suit their own designs without any reference to the Quran and Sunnah. It is a lame attempt to show that Allah had extracted the covenant from the prophets with regards to Bahaullah, when the reality is far from this.

What the Muslims say:
This verse refers to Allah extracting the covenant of His Godhood from all the prophets with a specific mention of the five great prophets. In effect, this verse underscores the finality of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) in light of his being the first among all prophets to testify to Allah’s Godhood.

Perhaps there is no bigger blunder the Bahais have made with respect to the misrepresentation of the Holy Quran than by advancing this particular verse as proof of Bahaullah’s prophethood. When Allah takes a covenant from these five prophets (among the other prophets) it is regarding His Own Godhood and not Bahaullah’s Prophethood.

Pick up any book on the Holy Quran and Sunnah and you will find that this verse is among the clearest evidences on the finality of the prophethood of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). And unlike Surah Ahzaab: 40, where the Bahais have tried to wriggle out by making lame interpretations of the word ‘Khaatam‘, the interpretation of this verse has the word ‘Aakhar‘ with regards to the prophethood of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) which means ‘last’, ‘final’, ‘concluding’.

A. Interpretation of this verse from Ahle Sunnah sources
In Al Durrul Mansoor there are tens of traditions on this verse underlining the finality of Prophet Mohammed’s (pbuh) prophethood. As a matter of fact, these traditions highlight two important facts:
1. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was created before all the prophets.
2. Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was sent by Allah after all the prophets.

I have mentioned traditions from Al Durrul Mansoor to illustrate both the above points.

Ibne Jarir narrates from Qutada regarding the verse: We took from the prophets their covenant: As (We did) from thee: from Noah…(Surah Ahzaab: 7) that Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) told us – I am the first prophet to be created and the last one from them (aakhirahom fil ba’as) to be raised. 
(Ref: Al Durrul Mansoor volume 5, page 184)

Hasan b. Hareerah narrates from Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) regarding: We took from the prophets their covenant…(Surah Ahzaab: 7) – I was the first prophet in creation and the last one from them (aakhirahom fil ba’as) to be raised…’ 
(Ref: Al Durrul Mansoor volume 5, page 184)

Ibne Abi Shaibah narrates from Qutada – when the Prophet (pbuh) recited this verse: We took from the prophets their covenant: As (We did) from thee: from Noah…(Chapter of Ahzaab, verse 7) he said – All goodness was initiated with me and I am the last prophet to be raised (aakhirahom fil ba’as).’ 
(Ref: Al Durrul Mansoor volume 5, page 184)

Abi Hareerah narrates regarding this verse – The best sons of Adam are five: Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosa, Esa and Mohammed (peace be on them) 
(Ref: Al Durrul Mansoor volume 5, page 184)

B. Interpretation of this verse from Shia sources
There is a very interesting tradition from Tafsire’ Qummi from Imam Sadiq on this verse:

“The first among all the creatures to testify to the covenant was Prophet Mohammed (pbuh). And that is why he is the closest and most proximate creature to Allah, the Almighty. He (Mohammed pbuh) had the highest position near Allah. Jibrail informed him about this on the night of the ascent (Meraaj) when he told him – ‘O Mohammed you have a position in front of Allah that none can claim to have it, be it a proximate angel or a prophet sent forth.’ If his soul (Mohammed’s soul) and his self had not been from that position, he would not have been able to reach it. Then he was with Allah as the verse (Surah Najm: 9) declares, ‘And was at a distance of but two bow-lengths or (even) nearer.’

Then Imam Sadiq said, ‘The covenant was extracted from the prophets with regards to Godhood, prophethood and Imamat of Amirul Momineen (Ali bin Abi Talib) and the other Imams. Then Allah said – Am I not your Lord? Is Mohammed not your prophet? Is Ali not your Imam? Are the guided Imams not your leaders?’ They said, ‘Yes we beat witness (to all this)’.

‘The first covenant that Allah took from the prophets was regarding His Godhood – ‘We took from the prophets their covenant…’ In this verse, Allah mentions all the prophets in summarised manner (min Al Nabiyyeen). However, He mentions the most superior of them with name (Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosa Esa) and before naming all these prophets He says – ‘As (We did) from thee (O Mohammed)’ because Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was superior to even these four most superior prophets. Then these five are the most superior of prophets and Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was superior to the other four. 
(Ref: Tafsire’ Qummi volume 1, page 248)

Ali b. Ibrahim Qummi says, ‘Then Allah took the covenant from the prophets regarding His Godhood…then He took a covenant from all the prophets regarding prophethood of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh).’ 
(Ref: Tafsire’ Qummi, volume 2 page 152)

Conclusion
The above verses conclusively prove the Finality of the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) from the Quran.

The above interpretations from Muslim sources should also be sufficient to highlight how the Bahais have misinterpreted the Quran. It is but logical that if we wish to seek a clarification about the Quran, then we should seek it from the one on whom the Quran was revealed and not from some person who was born more than 1200 years after the incident.

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The Prophet’s Marriages

In The Name Of Allah, The Most Beneficient, The Most Merciful

One of the examples of Islam-bashing that we see on the TV and the internet these days is the one liner statement like: “Muhammad was a womanizer; he had nine wives.” For Muslims who have studied the books of the Orientalists and the Crusade-minded missionaries, such statements are not new.

Study the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) and you will see that the Prophet was a man of highest character even long before he started preaching Islam.

At the age of twenty-five, Prophet Muhammad married a famous and a highly respected lady of Mecca, by the name of Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who was older than him in age. (refer Ibn Kathir in Bidayah Wal Nihayah vol 2, pg 360 Beirut edition)

(According to the popular opinion, she was 15 years older than the Prophet, but based on further research into this matter, we can say that she was only two years older than the Prophet).

The important thing is that he remained married to her for twenty-five years until she passed away in Mecca. Two years after her death, the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina where he founded the first Islamic society.

So for the first 50 years of his life, the Prophet had only one wife, Lady Khadīja, whom he loved dearly and who was one of the strongest pillars of support in promoting his cause. During the last 13 years of his life, he married other wives.

Prophet Muhammad:

  • From birth to age 25: single.
  • From age 25 to age 50: married to one wife, Khadija.
  • From age 50 to age 63: married ten wives.

 

The Other Wives

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Abu Hanifa’s verdict on Khatm-e-Nabuwwat  

A glance through the history of Islam from the first century up to the modern times reveals to us the fact that the ulema of all periods in every Islamic country of the world are unanimous in their conviction that no new prophet can be raised after Mohammed (pbuh). They all agree in the belief that anyone who lays a claim to Prophethood after Mohammed (pbuh) and anyone who puts faith in such a claim is an apostate and an outcast from the community of Islam. A man in the time of Imam Abu Hanifa (80 A.H.-150 A.H.) laid claim to Prophethood and said “Let me show you the proofs of my prophethood.” The great Imam thereupon warned the people: “Anyone who asks of this man the credentials of prophethood, shall become an apostate, for the Prophet of God (pbuh) has explicitly declared: “No prophet will come after me.” (Manaqib al-Imam-i-Azam Abi Hanifa, Ibn Ahmad al-Makki, Vol. I, p.161, published in Hyderabad, India, 1321 A.H.)

Holy Quran — the everlasting miracle of Prophet Muhammad (s)

The Holy Qur’an is the everlasting miracle of the last Prophet. The miracles of the former Prophets like Prophet Ibrahim, Prophet Musa and Prophet ‘Isa, each of whom had a revealed Book and also wrought miracles, were distinct from their revealed Books. They wrought such miracles as the transformation of a blazing fire into ‘coolness and peace’, the conversion of a dry piece of wood into a serpent and bringing the dead to life. Obviously each of these miracles, was temporary and passing. But in the case of the last Prophet his Book itself was his miracle. It is the proof of his Prophethood. As such, the miracle of finality, unlike any other miracle, is everlasting, not passing nor meant only for the time being.

The fact that a Divine Book is the miracle of the last Prophet is absolutely in comformity with his time, the age of the advancement of science, knowledge, culture and education. The eternity of this Holy Book is also in consonance with the eternity of its message which is never to be abrogated.

The Holy Qur’an in several verses of it has expressly proclaimed this extraordinary and superhuman aspect of itself. One of these verses says:

“If you are in doubt about what We have revealed to Our bondman, then bring a chapter like it.” (Surah al-Baqarah, 2:23)

It has also expressly mentioned several other miracles wrought by the last Prophet.

The Holy Qur’an has dwelt on a number of questions related to the miracles. It declares that a Divine message must be accompanied by some miracles, that a miracle is a decisive evidence and definite proof, that the Prophets work the miracles by the will of Allah and that they work them to prove the veracity of their claim, and that they are not bound to accede to every request of everybody in this respect. In other words, the Prophets are not expected to hold an exhibition of miracles or to set up a factory of them.

As the Holy Qur’an has dealt with these questions, it has also expressly recounted the stories of the miracles of many of the former Prophets like Nuh, Ibrahim, Lut, Salih, Hud, Musa and ‘Isa, and has categorically confirmed them.

The word Khatam in Holy Quran

The word Khatam has come on different scales of noun, verb, infinitive in the Holy Quran but the root is the same viz. Khatama.

The verses have been listed below in order of their occurrence in the Quran:

خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ

      “Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur)”.

(Surah Baqarah – Chapter 2, verse 7)

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى قُلُوبِكُم مَّنْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِهِ انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ

      “Say: Have you considered that if Allah takes away your hearing and your sight and sets a seal on your hearts …”

(Surah Anaam – Chapter 6, verse 46)

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

      “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets and Allah has full knowledge of all things.”

(Surah Ahzab – Chapter 33, verse 40)

الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَى أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنَا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

      “That Day shall We set a seal on their mouths. But their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to all that they did”.

(Surah Yaseen – Chapter 36, verse 65)

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا فَإِن يَشَأِ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ وَيَمْحُ اللَّهُ الْبَاطِلَ وَيُحِقُّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

      “If Allah pleased, He would seal your heart.”

(Surah Shura – Chapter 42, verse 24)

أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةً فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

      “Have you then considered him who takes his low desire for his God and Allah has made him err having knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart…”

(Surah Jaasiyah – Chapter 45, verse 23)

يُسْقَوْنَ مِن رَّحِيقٍ مَّخْتُومٍ

      “They are made to quaff of a pure drink that is sealed.”

(Surah Mutaffifeen – Chapter 83, verse 25)

خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ وَفِي ذَلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ

      “The sealing of it is (with) musk.”

(Surah Mutaffifeen – Chapter 83, verse 26)

The third instance of Khatam’s occurrence in the Quran in Surah Ahzab, verse 40 is of particular interest to our discussion. Why the other seven Quranic verses don’t need to be discussed while debating meaning of Khatama is something the Bahais can tell us. From my point of view all the eight verses are relevant to our discussion on Khatama, and in any case, the Quranic verses were not meant to be studied in isolation. Parts of Quran endorse other parts since there is no contradiction in it – ‘Do they not then meditate on the Quran? And if it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy’ (Surah Nisa, verse 82).

Lets begin with the eight Quranic verses with the occurrence of Khatama; I have preserved Surah Ahzab, verse 40 for the end. In all the eight verses, there are some common and striking observations, which should not escape the attention of the Bahais:

  1. In all the eight verses, Khatama comes with the literal meaning of seal or close. All litterateurs I have mentioned in the Dictionary meaning of Khatama are unanimous in their view that Khatama in all these verses is applicable with the literal meaning of ‘seal/close’. No other literal or metaphorical meaning of Khatama can be applied to these verses.

  2. Seal is the only literal meaning that is appropriate for these verses. Using a different meaning from ‘seal/close’ can actually alter the interpretation of the verse completely.

    For example, take the first instance of Khatama in Surah Baqarah, verse 7,

    خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ

    ‘Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).’

    If we had to take the metaphorical meaning of ornamentation, then the verse would read like this:

    ‘Allah hath set an ornament on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).’

    Notice the meaning has changed completely. From a rebuke with the real meaning of ‘seal’, it has turned into a compliment with the metaphorical meaning of ‘ornament’! Hardly a penalty for the guilty ones! I leave it to the Bahais to decide whether Allah meant it as seal or ornament. Likewise in Surah Yaseen, verse 65, it is unlikely that Allah wants ‘to ornament their mouths. But their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to all that they did’. It is most likely that He wants to ‘set a seal on their mouths’.

  3. In addition to the fact that only the literal meaning ‘seal’ makes any sense of the eight Quranic verses, even the exegesis (Tafseer) of these Quranic verses reveals that Allah meant ‘seal’ and not ornamentation.

    Without delving in to the eight Quranic verses that mention ‘Khatama’, I will directly go the 40th verse of Surah Ahzab and see what the reliable Quranic scholars have had to say about the meaning of Khatama in their exegeses. Below is the list of Muslim scholars of the Quran and hadith. I have referred to all their exegeses in my quest to establish the meaning of Khatama as ‘seal’ as opposed to ornamentation:

    • Tafseer-e-Ibne Kathir by Imamul Hafiz Imamadud Deen Abul Fida Ismail Ibne Umar Ibne Kathir
    • Tafseer-e-Kashshaaf by Zamakhshari
    • Tafseer-e-Thaalabi by Allamah Abi Zaid Thaalabi
    • Tafseer-e-Thauri by Imam Abi Abdillah Sufyan Ibne Saeed Masrooq Al-Thauri (popularly known as Sufyan Thauri)
    • Tafseer-e-Jalalain by Jalaaluddin Suyuti and Jalaaluddin Mahalli
    • Tafseer-e-Qurtubbi by Abu Abdillah Muhammad Ibne Ahmed Al Ansaari Al Qurtubbi
    • Ad Durrul Manthoor Bi Tafseer Bi Maathoor by Imam Jalaaluddin Suyuti
    • At Tafseerul Shaheerat by Shaikh Muhammad Abdoh
    • Tafseer-e-Baizaavi by Baizaavi
    • Tafseer-e-Fakhre Raazi by Imam Fakhre Raazi

    Having read the tafseer of Surah Ahzaab, verse 40, I find that all the scholars of Quran that I have listed, have interpreted ‘Khaatam-al-Nabiyyin’ as ‘Seal of Prophets’. They have based their opinion on the basis of Quranic verses, the correct Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh), historical events before and after the advent of Islam, Arabic literature and the rules of Arabic grammar. Anyone who studies their exegeses of the Quran like I have studied will reach a conclusion that I have reached viz. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is Seal of Prophets and not Ornament of Prophets.

  4. I have referred to most of the popular English translations of the Quran viz. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Marmaduke Pickthall, S V Ahmad Ali, M M Shakir and have found them all consistent in translating ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’. Even non-Muslim translators hostile to Islam, like Sale, Rodwell and Palmer, to name a few, have translated ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’. In other words, apart from the Bahais and Qadianis, no one seems to believe that ‘Khatama’ is ornament. On the contrary, they all believe that ‘Khatama’ means ‘Seal’. As far as the Bahais are concerned I am particularly interested in learning which Quran translation they have been referring to. If they have their own English translation of the Quran (approved by the Universal House of Justice), I would like to see it.

Having studied the meaning of Khatama, first from the viewpoint of Arabic literature and then from several exegeses of the Quran, I believe there is no reason to suggest that ‘Khaatam-al-Nabiyyin’ means anything other than ‘Seal of Prophets’. To put it plainly, it means Seal of Prophets because there is no reason to even remotely conclude otherwise.

I will make the same claim I have made in my earlier articles – if Bahais have reason to believe that Quranic scholars of repute like Jalaaluddin Suyuti, Ibne Kathir, Zamakhshari, Fakhre Raazi are wrong in their evaluation of ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’, then let them advance better names to challenge the Islamic stance on ‘Khatama’.

Khatam — in light of narrations

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “The tribe of Israel was guided by prophets. When a prophet passed away, another prophet succeeded him. But no prophet will come after me; only caliphs will succeed me.”
(Ref: Sahih Bukhari, Kitabe‘ Manaqeb)

The Holy Prophet (pbuh) said, “My position in relation to the prophets who came before me can be explained by the following example: A man erected a building and adorned this edifice with great beauty, but he left an empty niche, in the corner where just one brick was missing. People looked around the building and marveled at its beauty, but wondered why a brick was missing from that niche? I am like unto that one missing brick and I am the last in the line of the Prophets.”
(Ref: Bukhari – Kitabe’ Manaqeb, Muslim,Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad, Tirmizi, Babu Khatimin-Nabiyyin, Musnad Abu Dawud Tayalisi)

In one narration, there is an addition of the sentence – “The chain of prophethood has been terminated upon me.”

This means that by the advent of Holy Prophet (pbuh), the edifice of guidance has been completed and perfected and there is no place / need for another prophet.

False Claimants of Prophethood after the Holy Prophet (pbuh)

The Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) prophesised that “there will arise 30 imposters in my nation and each one of them will pronounce that he is a prophet, but I am the last in the line of the Prophets and no Messenger will follow me.”

With reference to this tradition, Here’s a lists all those who claimed to be a prophet after Prophet Mohammed (pbuh):

Musailama al-Kazzab: Among the first false claimants to Prophecy was Musailama al-Kazzab, who appeared during the time of Prophet Mohammed(upon whom be blessings and peace) and his Companions and caused numerous troubles among Muslims and had many followers. He eventually surrendered along with his supporters in Al-Yamam battle, led by the Abu Bakr, and was killed.

Sajah al-Kahenah: Along with Musailama in falsely claiming Prophethood, was his wife, Sajah al-Kahenah, although she later reversed her position after her husband, Musailama, had been killed.

Saf son of Sayyad: Another false claimant to Prophethood that appeared during the time of the Prophet and his companions, was Saf son of Sayyad. He claimed he was a Prophet when he was on the threshold of adolescence, and was initially believed to be the false messiah, as his characteristics were the same as those of the false messiah. He later repented and embraced Islam.

Tulayha son of Khwailid: Tulayha was another of the false Prophets who appeared during the time of the Prophet and his companions, but later repented and returned to the fold of Islam.

Aswad al-Ansi: Also during the time of the Prophet and his companions was another false Prophet, named Aswad al-Ansi. He was based in Yemen and was killed by the companions of the Prophet.

Mahmud son of al-Faraj: In Samara, a false Prophet by the name of Mahmud son of al-Faraj appeared in 849-850 CE with a claim that a Quran was revealed to him through the angel Gabriel. He is reported to have some followers in Samara and Baghdad. He was executed on the orders of caliph, al-Mutawakkil.

Bab: Another false claimant to prophethood, and the predecessor of Bahaullah, was Mizra Ali Muhammad, who initially declared himself the “Bab” (Gate) to the Mahdi, and eventually progressed into other claims. He was embraced by the Shaykhis sect of Shi’a , who were then renamed “Babis”. Subsequently, he declared himself to be the Shi’ite’s hidden Mahdi. After declaring himself the Mahdi, he moved on to call himself Nuqtiyiula and declared that the Quran and Muslim Shari’a were now abrogated. Shi’a and Sunni scholars condemned him and Bab faced a series of imprisonment, trials, and indignities before being shot dead by a firing squad in 1850.

Bahaullah: The self-proclaimed successor to the Bab, and another liar/false claimant to prophecy was Mizra Hussein Ali Nuri. In 1863 Hussein Ali, a prominent member of the Babi group, declared himself to be the person whom God will make manifest, whom the Bab had foretold. He also took the name Bahaullah (Glory of God) and formed a new religion, the Bahai faith. Bahaullah was banished from Persia and was eventually imprisoned in Akka-Palestine. There he wrote his main work, his Kitab-ul-Aqdas (Most Holy Book), and developed the doctrine of the Bahai faith into a comprehensive teaching.

Elijah Muhammad: Elijah Muhammad, succeeding Wallace Dodd Ford, was another in the line of false prophets. He founded the convoluted belief system based on ideas extracted from everything from Christanity to Masonry to Islam in Detroit, Michigan in the 1930s. He referred to it as the “Nation of Islam”.

Kareem Agha Khan: In the early 1970s, another false-claimant to prophecy appeared within the Ismaili sect, who proclaims himself to be a manifestation of God on Earth and a spokesman for Allah.

Rashid Khalifa: Then we have another false prophet, Rashid Khalifa, who came from Egypt, and claimed there to be an intricate numerical pattern to the Qur’an revolving around the number 19 in 1974. Because of this, he claimed to be a Messenger of God, alongside Prophets Ibraheem (Abraham) and Muhammad, and founded the group called “United Submitters International”, rejecting the hadeeths of the Prophet, and denounced ayats 9:128-129 of the Qur’an. For many years he was the Imam at the Tuscon Mosque in Arizona, where he was later stabbed to death in 1990.

Al Mizra Abbas: Another liar, Al-Mizra Abbas, in 1233 AH/1818 CE, appeared in Tehran, Iran and died in Palestine.

Shabbatai Zevi: Shabbatai Zevi was one of the False Prophets who appeared during a desperate period of Ashkenazi Jewish history in the 16th and 17th centuries, promising to lead his compatriots out of tzuresdike golus (painful exile) to dwell with the Lord in Eretz Yisroel (the land of Israel). It neither turned out as prophesised, nor did the high hopes of the Jewish colonies in Brazil.

Saleh son of Tarif Burghwati: Saleh claimed prophethood and Mahdihood in 125 AH. After ruling over his people for 47 years, in 174 AH he abdicated the throne in favour of his son.

Abu Mansoor ‘Eessa: Abu Mansoor ‘Eessa claimed prophethood and Mahdihood in 341 AH and ruled over his people for 28 years.

Al-Harith son of Sa’id: Al-Harith son of Said claimed prophethood during the reign of the Umayyad caliph, Abd al-Malik son of Marwan. A number of royal soldiers were suspected of supporting him. He was executed in 698-699 CE.

Mizra Ghulam Ahmad: Mizra Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian is a British-engineered false Prophet who appeared in India to quell resistance against the British colonialists. He claimed to be the Messiah as the similitude of Prophet ‘Eessa, the Mahdi, a Prophet, a Messenger, and the second advent of Prophet Mohammedsimultaneously. He invited his fiercest oppenent, Molvi Sanaullah Amratsari, to a prayer duel. He advertised his supplication to Allah pleading Him to annihilate the liar amongst the two in the lifetime of the truthful one, by Cholera or by Plague. He considered them to be the sign of Divine Anger and Punishment. Mirza subsequently died of cholera a year later.

Mohammedson of Sa’id: Mohammedson of Sa’id is considered as one of the four infamous forgers of hadith. He distorted the hadith: “I am the seal of prophets and there is no prophet after me” by adding: “unless Allah wills {otherwise}”. He is reported to have drawn his own conclusions from this addition and claimed prophethood for himself. He was executed on the orders of Abbasid caliph, Abu Jafar al-Mansoor.

Mahmood MohammedTaha: Mahmood MohammedTaha was also a false claimant to prophecy who was based in Sudan, and he tried with maximum endeavor to mislead normal people from their Islamic way of life until he was beheaded in 1985.

Jasmin: A more recent individual who has appeared, and could potentially be a false claimant to prophethood is Jasmin. He appeared in 1998 in Bosnia, claiming the War of Bosnia and Herzegovina was the Battle of Armageddon, and claims that he is the Messiah, tasked by God to introduce the human community into the “golden age”, and claims that his destiny has been described under the symbol and notion of a lamb.

Dr. Dwight York: Another fairly recent false claimant to prophecy was Dr. York. In the late 1960s York, started calling himself “Amunnnubi Rooakhptah,” and founded various quasi-Muslim black-nationalist movements (among these was the Ansaarullah Community) based on something called the “Science of Nuwaubu”. In the 1990s, he changed his community from worshipping Allah to worshipping pagan idols. Soon thereafter, he claimed to receive divine revelation, forming his own cult of Nuwaubians, following, what they call, “The Holy Tablets”, with beliefs, based on pantheism, with an anthropomorphic view of Allah. In 2002, he was arrested and charged with child molestation. In 2004, he was convicted, and sentenced to 135 years in prison.

Riyaz Ahmad Gohar Shahi: Another claimant to Mahdihood and prophecy, is Gohar Shahi. He was born in 1941 in the Indian sub-continent. He had a traditional Sufi upbringing, and at age 34 he went on a 3 year spiritual retreat (which he says to have been under the guidance of a “divine spirit”) into the mountains of Sehwan Sharif. Afterwards, he returned (claiming it to have been commanded by God), and started to preach his message of “Remembrance and Love of God”, disregarding religion and its practices, also claiming that his image is implanted on the moon, gaining a significant number of followers. The Ulema have since issued various fatwas against him.

So as you can see, the situation is clear. There were many false prophets who came after Mohammed(pbuh).

Prophet (s) Knew Every Language, Script & Letters

In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

62_2There is a difference of opinion about why Allah addressed Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w.a.) as ‘Ummee’ (unlettered). Some wrongly say that it was because he could not write and read. Some have said that it is related to ‘Ummah’, others say as he apparently had not been taught by anybody, he was, like illiterate Arabs.
Some have said: It was related to mother (Umm), meaning thereby that he was just as he was at the time of taking birth from his mother’s womb, that is, like a child who had not learnt reading and writing yet. In some traditions, it is mentioned that it was related to ‘Ummul Qura’ meaning the city of Mecca. And there is no dispute about the fact that, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) had, till he was appointed as a prophet, not learnt reading and writing from anybody.

The Almighty Allah says: “And you did not recite before it any book, nor did you transcribe one
with your right hand, for then could those who say untrue things have doubted.”

[Surah Anaam 6:19]

There is a difference of opinion also whether he could read and write even after becoming a prophet or not. So, the truth is that the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was able to read and write as, it was through divine revelation, that he knew everything and, with the might of the Almighty, he was able to do everything which others could not. But it was due to exigency that he did not write anything himself but asked others to read out, mostly letters. He had not learnt reading and writing from any human being. It is mentioned in a tradition that Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was writing and also reading letters.

In another authentic tradition he said: Among the things which Allah bestowed on the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) was that he was Ummee. He was not writing but could read letters.

In another reliable tradition, the verse “He it is Who raised among the inhabitants of Mecca an Apostle from among themselves, who recites to them His communications…” [Surah Jumah 62:2] Continue reading