The Prophet’s Marriages

In The Name Of Allah, The Most Beneficient, The Most Merciful

One of the examples of Islam-bashing that we see on the TV and the internet these days is the one liner statement like: “Muhammad was a womanizer; he had nine wives.” For Muslims who have studied the books of the Orientalists and the Crusade-minded missionaries, such statements are not new.

Study the life of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) and you will see that the Prophet was a man of highest character even long before he started preaching Islam.

At the age of twenty-five, Prophet Muhammad married a famous and a highly respected lady of Mecca, by the name of Khadija bint Khuwaylid, who was older than him in age. (refer Ibn Kathir in Bidayah Wal Nihayah vol 2, pg 360 Beirut edition)

(According to the popular opinion, she was 15 years older than the Prophet, but based on further research into this matter, we can say that she was only two years older than the Prophet).

The important thing is that he remained married to her for twenty-five years until she passed away in Mecca. Two years after her death, the Prophet migrated from Mecca to Medina where he founded the first Islamic society.

So for the first 50 years of his life, the Prophet had only one wife, Lady Khadīja, whom he loved dearly and who was one of the strongest pillars of support in promoting his cause. During the last 13 years of his life, he married other wives.

Prophet Muhammad:

  • From birth to age 25: single.
  • From age 25 to age 50: married to one wife, Khadija.
  • From age 50 to age 63: married ten wives.

 

The Other Wives

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The word Khatam in Holy Quran

The word Khatam has come on different scales of noun, verb, infinitive in the Holy Quran but the root is the same viz. Khatama.

The verses have been listed below in order of their occurrence in the Quran:

خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ

      “Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur)”.

(Surah Baqarah – Chapter 2, verse 7)

قُلْ أَرَأَيْتُمْ إِنْ أَخَذَ اللّهُ سَمْعَكُمْ وَأَبْصَارَكُمْ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى قُلُوبِكُم مَّنْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللّهِ يَأْتِيكُم بِهِ انظُرْ كَيْفَ نُصَرِّفُ الآيَاتِ ثُمَّ هُمْ يَصْدِفُونَ

      “Say: Have you considered that if Allah takes away your hearing and your sight and sets a seal on your hearts …”

(Surah Anaam – Chapter 6, verse 46)

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

      “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets and Allah has full knowledge of all things.”

(Surah Ahzab – Chapter 33, verse 40)

الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلَى أَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنَا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

      “That Day shall We set a seal on their mouths. But their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to all that they did”.

(Surah Yaseen – Chapter 36, verse 65)

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ افْتَرَى عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا فَإِن يَشَأِ اللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَى قَلْبِكَ وَيَمْحُ اللَّهُ الْبَاطِلَ وَيُحِقُّ الْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ إِنَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ

      “If Allah pleased, He would seal your heart.”

(Surah Shura – Chapter 42, verse 24)

أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَهَهُ هَوَاهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ وَخَتَمَ عَلَى سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةً فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

      “Have you then considered him who takes his low desire for his God and Allah has made him err having knowledge and has set a seal upon his ear and his heart…”

(Surah Jaasiyah – Chapter 45, verse 23)

يُسْقَوْنَ مِن رَّحِيقٍ مَّخْتُومٍ

      “They are made to quaff of a pure drink that is sealed.”

(Surah Mutaffifeen – Chapter 83, verse 25)

خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ وَفِي ذَلِكَ فَلْيَتَنَافَسِ الْمُتَنَافِسُونَ

      “The sealing of it is (with) musk.”

(Surah Mutaffifeen – Chapter 83, verse 26)

The third instance of Khatam’s occurrence in the Quran in Surah Ahzab, verse 40 is of particular interest to our discussion. Why the other seven Quranic verses don’t need to be discussed while debating meaning of Khatama is something the Bahais can tell us. From my point of view all the eight verses are relevant to our discussion on Khatama, and in any case, the Quranic verses were not meant to be studied in isolation. Parts of Quran endorse other parts since there is no contradiction in it – ‘Do they not then meditate on the Quran? And if it were from any other than Allah, they would have found in it many a discrepancy’ (Surah Nisa, verse 82).

Lets begin with the eight Quranic verses with the occurrence of Khatama; I have preserved Surah Ahzab, verse 40 for the end. In all the eight verses, there are some common and striking observations, which should not escape the attention of the Bahais:

  1. In all the eight verses, Khatama comes with the literal meaning of seal or close. All litterateurs I have mentioned in the Dictionary meaning of Khatama are unanimous in their view that Khatama in all these verses is applicable with the literal meaning of ‘seal/close’. No other literal or metaphorical meaning of Khatama can be applied to these verses.

  2. Seal is the only literal meaning that is appropriate for these verses. Using a different meaning from ‘seal/close’ can actually alter the interpretation of the verse completely.

    For example, take the first instance of Khatama in Surah Baqarah, verse 7,

    خَتَمَ اللّهُ عَلَى قُلُوبِهمْ وَعَلَى سَمْعِهِمْ وَعَلَى أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ

    ‘Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).’

    If we had to take the metaphorical meaning of ornamentation, then the verse would read like this:

    ‘Allah hath set an ornament on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).’

    Notice the meaning has changed completely. From a rebuke with the real meaning of ‘seal’, it has turned into a compliment with the metaphorical meaning of ‘ornament’! Hardly a penalty for the guilty ones! I leave it to the Bahais to decide whether Allah meant it as seal or ornament. Likewise in Surah Yaseen, verse 65, it is unlikely that Allah wants ‘to ornament their mouths. But their hands will speak to us, and their feet bear witness, to all that they did’. It is most likely that He wants to ‘set a seal on their mouths’.

  3. In addition to the fact that only the literal meaning ‘seal’ makes any sense of the eight Quranic verses, even the exegesis (Tafseer) of these Quranic verses reveals that Allah meant ‘seal’ and not ornamentation.

    Without delving in to the eight Quranic verses that mention ‘Khatama’, I will directly go the 40th verse of Surah Ahzab and see what the reliable Quranic scholars have had to say about the meaning of Khatama in their exegeses. Below is the list of Muslim scholars of the Quran and hadith. I have referred to all their exegeses in my quest to establish the meaning of Khatama as ‘seal’ as opposed to ornamentation:

    • Tafseer-e-Ibne Kathir by Imamul Hafiz Imamadud Deen Abul Fida Ismail Ibne Umar Ibne Kathir
    • Tafseer-e-Kashshaaf by Zamakhshari
    • Tafseer-e-Thaalabi by Allamah Abi Zaid Thaalabi
    • Tafseer-e-Thauri by Imam Abi Abdillah Sufyan Ibne Saeed Masrooq Al-Thauri (popularly known as Sufyan Thauri)
    • Tafseer-e-Jalalain by Jalaaluddin Suyuti and Jalaaluddin Mahalli
    • Tafseer-e-Qurtubbi by Abu Abdillah Muhammad Ibne Ahmed Al Ansaari Al Qurtubbi
    • Ad Durrul Manthoor Bi Tafseer Bi Maathoor by Imam Jalaaluddin Suyuti
    • At Tafseerul Shaheerat by Shaikh Muhammad Abdoh
    • Tafseer-e-Baizaavi by Baizaavi
    • Tafseer-e-Fakhre Raazi by Imam Fakhre Raazi

    Having read the tafseer of Surah Ahzaab, verse 40, I find that all the scholars of Quran that I have listed, have interpreted ‘Khaatam-al-Nabiyyin’ as ‘Seal of Prophets’. They have based their opinion on the basis of Quranic verses, the correct Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh), historical events before and after the advent of Islam, Arabic literature and the rules of Arabic grammar. Anyone who studies their exegeses of the Quran like I have studied will reach a conclusion that I have reached viz. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is Seal of Prophets and not Ornament of Prophets.

  4. I have referred to most of the popular English translations of the Quran viz. Abdullah Yusuf Ali, Marmaduke Pickthall, S V Ahmad Ali, M M Shakir and have found them all consistent in translating ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’. Even non-Muslim translators hostile to Islam, like Sale, Rodwell and Palmer, to name a few, have translated ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’. In other words, apart from the Bahais and Qadianis, no one seems to believe that ‘Khatama’ is ornament. On the contrary, they all believe that ‘Khatama’ means ‘Seal’. As far as the Bahais are concerned I am particularly interested in learning which Quran translation they have been referring to. If they have their own English translation of the Quran (approved by the Universal House of Justice), I would like to see it.

Having studied the meaning of Khatama, first from the viewpoint of Arabic literature and then from several exegeses of the Quran, I believe there is no reason to suggest that ‘Khaatam-al-Nabiyyin’ means anything other than ‘Seal of Prophets’. To put it plainly, it means Seal of Prophets because there is no reason to even remotely conclude otherwise.

I will make the same claim I have made in my earlier articles – if Bahais have reason to believe that Quranic scholars of repute like Jalaaluddin Suyuti, Ibne Kathir, Zamakhshari, Fakhre Raazi are wrong in their evaluation of ‘Khatama’ as ‘Seal’, then let them advance better names to challenge the Islamic stance on ‘Khatama’.

The Jews knew about the coming of Prophet Muhammad (s)

In The Name o Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

prophet_mohammad_by_Nice_birdThere are some reliable traditions on Qur’anic verses stating that the Almighty Allah had taken oaths from past prophets about Prophet of the last age and of his legatees and would ask them to testify to their prophethood and Imamate. It is said that Abdullah bin Salam used to say: “By Allah we know the Prophet Muhammad more than we know our own sons, because we have read his description in our holy books and have no doubt about it at all, while there can be some doubt about our sons.”

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has related from Hasan bin Thabit that he used to say: “I remember that when I was seven-years-old, a Rabbi on a hillock was calling other Jews to gather. When all of them assembled, he said: “Tonight a star has arisen which testifies to the appearance of the Prophet of last era, Ahmad Mujtaba (s.a.w.a.).”

Imam Hasan (a.s.) is reported to have narrated in a lengthy tradition that a group of Jews came to the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.) and one who was learned among them asked some questions. When the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) replied to his queries, he became a Muslim. Then he brought out a white paper showing all the replies given by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.). Then he said: “O Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.a.), by the One who appointed you as His Messenger, I have copied these questions and answers from the Divine tablets revealed to Prophet Moses (a.s.). I had seen so many of your signs in the Torah that I had begun to doubt its being the Divine Book. Forty years ago I had removed your name from Torah. But when I looked again in the Book, it was there! I have read in Torah that no one except you would be able to answers these questions, Jibraeel would be standing on your right, Mikaeel on your left, your legatee in front of you.”

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The Concept of Khatemiyat

In The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful

khatam2The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.a.) is the last messenger of Allah, Quran is the divine book and Islam the last of Allah’s religions. But during the course of history one can witness corrupt and crooked minded people who have misused this belief to their advantage. Therefore, let us first analyse the literal
meaning of the word Khatemiyat.
Allama Ibn Manzoor (630-711 a.h.) in his famous lexicon, “Lesaanul Arab” (vol. 4, p 25) has
explained under the word “Khatama” as follows:
“The end of something, i.e. to reach to its end. May Allah end it with goodness. The end of anything means its fate and ultimate…. Even the Quran has used it in this meaning when it says,
‘Muhammad is not the father of anyone among you. But he is the messenger of Allah and the last
of the Prophets.”
You observed that all the meanings of the words “Khaatam” and “Khatm” imply end. It is not
used in the meaning of ornament or its like. If a ring is called as Khatam it is because letters and
messages were sealed with it thereby implying that the letter has come to an end and nothing
more remains to be written.

Moreover, in the verse under deliberation, the word ‘Khatam’ is added to ‘Nabiyyeen’ which proves that the Holy Prophet (s.a.) is the last of the prophets (a.s.). Another important point is that in the Arabic language, the word ‘Nabi’ means the one who gives the news and ‘Rasool’ implies the one who brings a message from Allah. Both these words are not the opposites of each other. Rather, they can be used to supplement each other. In other words, it is quite possible that one person is both a Nabi as well as a Rasool, although the former encompasses the latter. So, when it is said that the Holy Prophet (s.a.) is the last Prophet and that there is no Prophet after him, then it is obvious that there is no messenger after him. Also, in authentic traditions, both the terms Nabi as well as Rasool have been used e.g. There are no Rasool after me. There are no nabi after me.

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Creation of Effulgence

In The Name of Allah The Most Beneficent The Most Merciful

normal_Islamic-Photos-00017-[yasinmedia_com]Sahykh Sadooq (r.a.) has through his chains of narrators, narrated that Imam Ja’far Sadiq (a.s.) said: Amirul Momineen Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) said that the Almighty Allah created Prophet’s Noor (light) 424000 years before the creation of the heavens, the earth, Arsh (Throne), Kursi, Lauh, Qalam, Paradise, Hell and all prophets. Then from the same Noor He created 12 veils, that is, the veil of Power (Qudrat), the veil of Greatness (Azmat), the veil of Grace (Minnat), the veil of Mercy (Rahmat), the veil of Bliss (Saadat), the veil of Wonder (Karamat), the veil of Status (Manzilat), the veil of Guidance (Hidayat), the veil of Prophethood (Nubuwwat), the veil of Loftiness (Rafat), the veil of Awe (Haibat), and veil of Intercession (Shafat). He kept this holy light in the veils of Might for twelve thousand years. It was reciting, “Glory to the Lord, the Almighty Allah,” therein.
Then He kept it in the veil of Power for 11000 years

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